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Sex among the flowers

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July 7, 2011, Connecting With Nature, NCW Greenways
by Dana Visalli

Anyone who has struggled with learning the scientific name of a plant can pin the blame squarely on the Swedish scientist Carl Linneaus. He came up with the idea of using two Latin or Greek words to identify any given species almost 300 years ago. For example, because of him our common little spring lily, the Yellowbell, is known to science as Fritillaria pudica.

Prior to Linneaus, it was thought that flowers had been created expressly to cheer up human beings by adding a bit of color to their lives. Linneaus pointed out that what flowers were actually doing out there in the fields and forests was exchanging male and female gametes through pollen transfer — they were having sex. Europeans were horrified, and accused Linneaus of being “indecent, lascivious and lewd.” Of course it turns out that he was right, and flowers exist for the reproduction of their own species and not for the pleasure of humans.

Flowers exist to attract insects (and occasionally hummingbirds), which will pick up pollen while probing around for nectar and deliver it to another flower on another plant, thus transferring male DNA. There are three main groups of insect pollinators: 1) flies and beetles, which have very short tongues and can only pollinate small, round flowers; 2) bees and wasps, which have medium-length tongues (for an insect), up to about half an inch, and often pollinate two-sided (bilateral) flowers like lupine; and 3) butterflies and moths, whose tongues are so long they have to be coiled up like a spring (the longest insect tongue on record belongs to a sphinx moth and is 16” in length!).

Insects are attracted to color, but surprisingly they can’t see red very well. Thus, red flowers, like our local columbine and paintbrushes, are often hummingbird pollinated. Flowers pollinated at night are usually white, so that night-flying moths can find them. The species name for the Yellowbell is pudica, which means bashful. It is so named because the yellow flower turns red after it is pollinated. Early observers thought perhaps it was embarrassed after having an affair with an insect, but we now know that the color change is a matter of energy conservation — insects will stop visiting those yellowbells that have turned red, because they don’t perceive that color clearly. Thus they save their energy for unpollinated flowers, and both insects and flowers benefit from this full-color communication between them.

Knowing all this, we can begin to predict which flowers are pollinated by which of the three groups of insects, and which are hummingbird pollinated. Small, round flowers are pollination generalists — they are easy to land on, and any type of insect, even a fly, can reach the nectar. Bilateral flowers like lupine are usually pollinated by bumblebees, while flowers with a long spur in back to hide the nectar would have to be pollinated by a butterfly, moth or hummingbird. See if you can predict from flower color and shape what bug is dating which flower on your next walk.

Dana Visalli lives in the Methow Valley where he teaches, farms and works as a biological consultant. He is the editor of The Methow Naturalist, a quarterly journal of natural history, and a contributor to Connecting With Nature, a program of the non-profit Initiative for Rural Innovation & Stewardship.

Pause to meet the pollinators

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July 7, 2011, Connecting With Nature, NCW Greenways
by Nancy Warner

The warm summer days and evenings ahead provide ample opportunities to slow down, take a closer look and get acquainted with the bumblebees, moths, butterflies and other insects that visit and pollinate the flowers of our region. Going on a walk with an expert is always a great way to start the introductions. Check out the summer offerings of guided hikes on below. But, unlike the days of Linnaeus when access to scientific information was scant, there are many resources available today to help anyone get to know these beautiful and fascinating creatures.

Here are just a few to check out:
To see the range of bright and colorful patterns used to distinguish the native bumblebees in our region visit the online key on The Methow Naturalist website, methownaturalist.com. There are at least 18 different species here.

The Xerces Society (xerces.org) and the Pollinator Partnership (pollinator.org) also provide publications, guides and fact sheets that help people identify and conserve pollinators and their habitat.

Learn about basic butterfly biology, butterflies in your area, and butterfly gardening at the Butterfly Conservation Initiative website, butterflyrecovery.org. For a good field guide, see Robert Michael Pyle’s The Butterflies of Cascadia.

Participate in a national effort designed to increase our understanding of bee habitat needs in urban areas by monitoring bees in your backyard garden through The Great Sunflower Project (greatsunflower.org).

Some related reading suggestions:
The Forgotten Pollinators, by Stephen L. Buchmann and Gary Paul Nabhan, 1996, Island Press.
The Insect World of J. Henri Fabre, edited by Edwin Way Teale, 1949, Harper & Row Publishers.
The Butterflies of Cascadia, by Robert Michael Pyle, 2002, Seattle Audubon Society.

Area organizations that sponsor nature walks:
Okanogan Highlands Alliance
Okanogan Land Trust
Methow Conservancy
The Methow Naturalist
Chelan Douglas Land Trust
The Nature Conservancy
Barn Beach Reserve
Wenatchee Outdoors
NCW Audubon Society
Native Plant Society

Nancy Warner coordinates the Connecting With Nature program for the Initiative for Rural Innovation & Stewardship (IRIS), a nonprofit group dedicated to fostering sustainable rural communities by connecting people, place and possibility.

Share your summer sightings

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July 7, 2011, Connecting With Nature, NCW Greenways
by Nancy Warner

We would like to invite all North Central Washington residents to join the Network of Naturalists and help create a nature journal for the region via our recently expanded Connecting With Nature website (connectingwithnature.org). With grant support from the “Connecting People With Nature” program of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, IRIS created this website where you can record your observations and post photos of plants, animals, weather and other phenomena that mark the seasonal rhythms of our region. Submit entries on your own or team up with a friend or family member. This is good and affordable family fun!

All nature observations are welcome — from notes on the familiar birds and insects you see in your backyard and garden to the new and sometimes breathtaking observations you make while exploring the wilds of our region. Help track seasonal changes and patterns by noting when and where you see insects around huckleberry flowers and those huckleberries ripening, along with salmon spawning, and chanterelle mushrooms popping up. Note the first strings of geese you see heading south and when the leaves begin to change color in the fall. We’ll highlight your contributions in The Wenatchee World and suggest others to track. Together, these observations will chronicle trends and changes and provide a legacy for future generations to build upon.

To join the Network of Naturalists, begin recording your observations in the regional nature journal at connectingwithnature.org. For more information, call Nancy Warner at 881-1812.

Nancy Warner coordinates the Connecting With Nature program for the Initiative for Rural Innovation & Stewardship (IRIS), a non-profit group dedicated to fostering sustainable rural communities by connecting people, place and possibility.

Wildflower Resources

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Susan Ballinger’s suggestions for resources that can help in your wildflower explorations.

April is a great month to explore our region’s shrub-steppe to see blooming wildflowers. A first step is to identify lands and trails that are open to the public. For the Wenatchee Foothills Trails, visit the Chelan-Douglas Land Trust (CDLT) website for a trail map. Or, stop by a local Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management office to get maps and hike suggestions from their friendly front-office staff. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife offers a great publication, North Central Washington: Wildlife Viewing Map for Highway 97 that identifies 36 public land sites between Ellensburg and Oroville for watching wildlife and often, wildflowers. The Wenatchee Outdoors website offers 9 local hike ideas in their guidebook under ‘Nature-Flower-Birds.

Once you pick a location, it is nice to take along a list of wildflowers documented at that site. The Washington State Native Plant Society (WNPS) offers native plant lists by county with 41 for Chelan, 8 for Douglas, and 32 for Okanogan county. A fun way to study-up at home before venturing into the field is to use on-line photo identification guides. The University of Washington Burke Museum Herbarium has stunning photographs and detailed descriptions of all Washington plant species. Locally, CDLT offers a localized searchable photo field guide to over 60 of the most common wildflowers in the Wenatchee Foothills.

One of the best ways to learn wildflowers is to go on a guided trip. Across Washington, there are 12 native plant society chapters, including the Wenatchee chapter, and each offers a series of free wildflower walks available to the public, all listed on the state website. Locally, several wildflower walks are offered in mid-May by the Leavenworth Birdfest and by the Chelan-Douglas Land Trust. Plan to take a self-guided tour any day at the native plant demonstration garden located at the Okanogan & Wenatchee National Forests Forest Supervisor’s Office at 215 Melody Lane in Wenatchee. Thirty-two species of native wildflowers and grasses are labeled and easily visible in the artistically designed garden.

It is helpful to have a wildflower photo field guide to carry with you when you hike. Three good options for our region include Northwest Dryland Wildflowers: Sagebrush and Ponderosa (Northwest Wildflowers Series) by Dana Visalli and David Hancock (2005); Sagebrush Country: A Wildflower Sanctuary by Ronald J. Taylor (1992), or Plants of Southern Interior British Columbia and the Inland Northwest by Robert Parish (1996). Request these through the North Central Regional Library or at a local bookstore.

A handy tool to carry in the field is a ten-powered hand lens that allows you to look closely inside flowers. These are available at local orchard supply stores and range from $10-45. Be sure to bring along a camera, pencil and field notebook to gather information to take home to help you identify the species. Sketch a picture of the entire plant, indicate the size, and record the type of soil. Draw a detailed picture of the flower, including the internal parts. Later, use your notes with on-line resources to make a best-guess at identification. Please don’t pick our native plants. Leave them in their habitat to serve as food and shelter for animals, to allow for seed production, and to be lovely flowers for the next visitor to enjoy. To keep from trampling our native plants, stay on designated trails and avoid cutting switchbacks and using shortcuts.

A good way to introduce children to native wildflowers is to take them to “Coyote’s Corner” at the Wenatchee Valley Museum and Cultural Center. An array of pressed plants are displayed in a colorful room painted to represent local habitats. You can download full page coloring sheets of many native wildflowers. Visit the Wenatchee School District website to view several slide shows featuring native wildflowers. These resources are used by teachers to prepare students for their annual 1st grade science field experience hiking in a local shrub-steppe preserve.

Learning about wildflowers is a great way to increase your enjoyment of being outside in our diverse and scenic landscape. Let the bright yellow of blooming balsamroot entice you to get out this month to see the wildflowers!

Here’s a sample of guided walks and natural history programs around our region this spring, all free and open to the public!

Riverside
Okanogan Conservation District invites the public to help plant 10 kinds of common native shrubs along the Johnson Creek banks in Riverside, north of Omak. April 15 and 16. Call for details.
Contact: Jenni Remillard, 422-0855, Ext. 100

Methow Valley
Okanogan chapter of the Washington Native Plant Society offers a series of wildflower walks throughout the region during spring and summer. The walks are led by local experts who like to educate others about plants.
Contact: Sandra Strieby, 997-2576

Leavenworth
The May 12-15 Leavenworth Bird Fest offers bird and wildflower field trips, including a Sauer Mountain walk on May 13 and two Ski Hill walks on May 14. Call after April 29 to reserve your spot as these trips fill quickly.
Contact: Chamber of Commerce, 548-5807

Wenatchee
Wenatchee chapter of the Washington Native Plant Society offers two public wildflower hikes. Call trip leaders for more information. On June 26, Julie Sanderson (662-5261) will lead a 3-mile walk to Clara Lake. On July 2, Ted Alway (548-4384) leads a 4-mile hike to Wedge Mountain.

Chelan-Douglas Land Trust has published a wildflower brochure available at trailhead kiosks at Horse Lake Preserve, Day Drive and the Jacobson Preserve. Visit its website to use a photo identification guide to 60 common plants in the foothills. Contact: Kathy Pevin, 667-9708

Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forests supervisor’s office, 215 Melody Lane. Take a self-guided tour any day at the native plant demonstration garden, where 32 species of native wildflowers and grasses are labeled and easily visible in the artistically designed garden.

Tonasket
Okanogan Highlands Alliance offers an educational class featuring the natural history of the region on May 6. Spring and summer interpretive hikes and restoration work parties will be listed at okanoganhighlands.org/education.
Contact: Julie Ashmore at julie@okanoganhighlands.org

Twisp
Methow Conservancy hosts a First Tuesday Lecture Series, offering a free community lecture, presentation or discussion focused on natural history, ecology or conservation topics.
Contact: Mary Kiesau, 996-2870

Wildflowers: The season’s greeetings

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April 2011, Connecting With Nature, NCW Greenways
by Susan Ballinger

Soft hues of green carpet the foothills while bright spots of yellow, blue and white blossoms pepper the landscape that surround our central Washington valleys in the month of April. It is hard to find a more beautiful time of year to get out and explore the wild lands of our region, especially for wildflower enthusiasts.
After five months of bitter cold, spring is a time when soils warm and water, released from snow, saturates the ground for a few brief weeks. Our foothills are dominated by big sagebrush, bitterbrush, bunchgrasses and wildflowers adapted to the 7 to 11 inches of total precipitation we get each year.

North Central Washington sits on the eastern edge of the Cascade Mountains, so our foothills rise steeply into forested mountains where precipitation is greater and Ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir trees grow. Valley residents can use their eyes to map the lowest elevation pine trees that form the transition zone between shrub-steppe and forest on our rising foothills. Ravines and gullies serve as vertical connectors, supporting taller shrubs like serviceberry, whose deep-growing roots tap into groundwater.

As you walk or drive around the valleys, scan the hillsides to spot blooming serviceberry shrubs. Their densely blooming, long-petaled white flowers create cloud-like bursts of white with a brief weeklong explosion of blooms.

As you drive the east-west corridor between Wenatchee and Leavenworth, compare the time of serviceberry flowering between the warmer and drier south-facing versus and cooler north-facing slopes. Often, wildflowers will bloom weeks sooner at the same elevation on a south-facing slope, compared to a nearby north-facing slope. Another blooming gradient to follow is elevational: Spring comes earlier at lower elevations, so if you miss the buttercups in March along the Columbia River, travel uphill.
Compared to mobile animals, plants can’t walk away when the weather gets severe and water is scarce. Plants employ several strategies that allow them to cope with water shortage and thrive in an arid environment.

Most shrub-steppe wildflowers are long-lived perennials whose above-ground stems and leaves die back, but underground roots remain alive. Our earliest blooming perennial wildflowers — like yellowbells, bluebells and shooting star — all concentrate their rapid above-ground growth of leaves, stems, flowers and seeds into a few balmy mild weeks and then quickly wither and die. Above-ground life exists for less than two months and then rest buried in soil until the next spring.

Some of our native plants require a viewer to get down on hands and knees for close-up inspections.

Healthy shrub-steppe soils are carpeted with a layer of living cryptobiotic crust: an interwoven population of mosses, lichens, simple plants, fungi and bacteria that form a multi-layered coating on the land. These simple organisms can quickly revert to dormancy when water is scarce. Try pouring a bit of water onto a patch of shrub-steppe soil and watch for a few moments to see crust suddenly green up as its living members start using sunlight to make food once water is available! This crust provides essential ecosystem services to other plants by trapping moisture in the soil, transferring nutrients and holding soil in place.

The crust is easily damaged by intensive animal and people traffic. It is very slow-growing, so you can spot lands that have been disturbed by the lack of a crust covering the mineral soils. By staying on established trails, hikers can help preserve the fragile, living crust.

The diversity of wildflowers in our region means travelers can find blooming plants from earliest spring into late fall. Start now by getting out to see the amazing display of color in our wild lands.

Susan Ballinger works as a consulting biologist with expertise in ecology and natural history. She serves on the Chelan-Douglas Land Trust board and is co-chair of the Wenatchee Chapter, Washington Native Plant Society.

Photos of Winter

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See Julie Ashmore’s January 4 comment on Snow Scorpion flies in Keeping an Eye on Nature (10/4/10).

Photos from a ski trip in Moses Coulee on January 3, 2011.

Tracking Nature in NCW

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The annual Christmas Bird Counts showed a decrease in the number of American robins in North Central Washington compared to recent counts, according to local birder David St. George.

The drop is presumably due to the shortage of berries that make up much of their winter food. Other common winter birds such as dark-eyed juncos are abundant and easily spotted at feeders and on the ground where they forage for seeds. Great blue heron numbers are holding steady along the rivers and lakes that stay open through the winter freeze.

We invite you to join others across NCW this winter in creating a naturalist’s journal for our region at www.connectingwithnature.org. Submit entries on your own or team up with a friend or family member to record your observations of the first three indicators we will track in 2011: robins, dark-eyed juncos and great blue herons.

Record the date and time, location, observer, weather notes and your observations. We’ll highlight your contributions in the April edition of Greenways and suggest other plants and animals to track into the spring and summer. Together, our observations will chronicle trends and changes and provide a legacy for future generations to build upon.

Nancy Warner is coordinator for the Initiative for Rural Innovation & Stewardship (IRIS), a non-profit dedicated to fostering sustainable rural communities by connecting people, place and possibility.

This piece is also published in the Wenatchee World at www.wenatcheeworld.com/news/2011/jan/03/tracking-nature-in-north-central-washington/

Start a journal and track: date/time, location, observer, weather notes, and your observations. Share your observations with the community by posting them here as comments. Submit entries on your own or team up with a friend or family member. Together our observations will chronicle trends and changes and provide a legacy for future generations to build on.

Post your observations by adding to the comments in the link immediately below. See recently added comments to Keeping an Eye on Nature, Oct. 4, 2010.

Add birding to your life list

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January 2011, Connecting With Nature, NCW Greenways
by Mark Oswood

Birds are perhaps the most watchable wildlife — present everywhere, identifying characteristics visible at a distance and an achievable challenge.

There are an estimated 60 million-plus birders in the United States, ranging from beginning backyard birdwatchers to experts who pursue hard-to-find birds in hard-to-get-to places. Some of these folks are solitary while others are more gregarious, looking for birds and sharing the joy in what they find.

Beginner to expert, solitary to social, most birders share a common bond: curiosity, a love of the outdoors and an interest in learning.

Birding is a lifelong sport in which all can participate.

What kind of birder are you? Do you travel? The trees at a dreary freeway rest area might hold a never-before-seen bird or provide an uncommonly close look at a common bird. The balcony of your hotel room might provide a perch to see an osprey gliding by, fish in talons. Maybe you are, like Thoreau, someone who travels far by staying close to home.

Do you know that the American robin has at least five distinct songs and calls? The possibilities of what you can see in your own backyard or neighborhood are enough to last a lifetime.

Your travels, at home or far away, will make thousands of memories, but what will you use to contain the memories? The brain is leaky; you need paper.
A “unit of memory” in your journal might include the birds that you saw or heard, the context of place, date, weather and maybe any notions that arise.

You might write: “At Hydro Park, cold evening near dusk, 13 December, 2010. I walked along the short grass near the river.

A great blue heron rose up from the river’s edge with the usual irritated-sounding call and looking ancient, like a pterodactyl.”
Sketches and quick paintings are natural adjuncts to the words in your journal.

For those of us unburdened by artistic talent, even diagrammatic sketches of markings and flight patterns can help with later bird identifications, when reference books and the Web are at hand.

There are excellent books on nature journaling, all full of hopeful evidence that art skills sufficient for nature journaling can be learned.

You might search for books by Clare Walker Leslie, Hannah Hinchman or Susan Leigh Tomlinson. Better yet, visit Heather Wallis Murphy, a local master of nature journaling, at her website, www.wildtales.com.

Your journals will, over the years, become repositories, not only of memories but also of valuable scientific data.

Your records of birds seen year-to-year can reveal changes in habitat, weather patterns and shifts in predators or diseases. Stacking the years on top of one another reveals the choreography of the seasons: arrivals of birds from wintering areas, first blossoms of flowers, eggs in nests, berries ripening, departures for the south.

Your journal entries become more powerful when joined with those from others who record their sightings.

We invite you to share your observations of birds and help us all learn more about their numbers, distribution and habits.

You can participate in a nationwide event, the Great Backyard Bird Count. You can also add your bird observations to the online nature journal for our region at www.connectingwithnature.org.

Mark Oswood is a retired biology professor but a beginning birder (old dogs can be lifelong learners). He is president of the NCW Audubon Society (www.ncwaudubon.org), a local chapter of the National Audubon Society dedicated to conserving and restoring natural ecosystems for the benefit of birds and people.

This piece is also published in the Wenatchee World at www.wenatcheeworld.com/news/2011/jan/03/add-birding-to-your-life-list/

Low-velocity birding

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The Christmas Bird Count is the longest running citizen science program in the world, with over a century of records.
This year’s CBC is just finished but you can make plans for next year. Your timing, however, is perfect for the Great Backyard Bird Count (GBBC), which runs four consecutive days beginning Feb. 18.

The GBBC is a more do-it-yourself, low-velocity version of the CBC. You pick your own location to count birds (for at least 15 minutes). If you are counting at different locations, you can do more than one count in a day; you can do counts on any or all of the four days of the GBBC. There are simple rules for counting birds, and you need to have some easy-to-get information for each of your counts.

If your birding experience is limited, chances are that you’ll see birds that you can’t identify. That’s OK! One of the questions you’ll answer for each of your counts is whether you identified all the birds you saw.

The GBBC is especially suited for stay-at-home bird watchers. Your seen-from-your-window count of birds at your backyard feeders is just as needed as a count done by a bungee-corded birder, dangling from a blimp over a remote mountaintop.

The GBBC website, www.birdsource.org/gbbc, has instructions, downloadable checklists of birds for your location and help for bird identifications. After you’ve done your counts, you enter your data at the GBBC website.

If you are completely nondigital but would like to do the GBBC, contact me at 662-9087 for a paper version.
— Mark Oswood, Connecting with Nature

This piece is also published in the Wenatchee World at www.wenatcheeworld.com/news/2011/jan/03/low-velocity-birding-for-everyone/

Keeping an Eye on Nature in NCW

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October 2010, Nature of Place, NCW Greenways
by Nancy Warner

“It takes a thousand voices to tell a single story,” as one Native American saying goes. This also describes the approach we take in the Initiative for Rural Innovation & Stewardship (IRIS) as we gather many stories to help us better understand the nature of North Central Washington.

Like individual pieces of a larger puzzle, each of the stories that people share about their connections with nature contribute to the collective picture of how this place works. And the more we know about the plants, animals and natural systems that support us, the more apt we are to thrive.

Some of this knowledge of place is passed on in journal entries about events such as the first sagebrush buttercup to bloom each spring or the first freeze in the fall. These notes help keep us in touch with the seasonal joys of living in this place and inform our plans for farming and gardening each year.

When we combine our collective notes with the memories and photos of longtime residents, we’re better able to understand how longer-term processes have shaped our forests, farmlands, rivers and shrub-steppe and to see future possibilities. It becomes a richer story -— a story of wonder and change that bridges generations and invites others to participate in its telling.

George Honey of Entiat is one of the many people whose memories are helping us learn about how the landscapes and communities of this region have changed. Born in the Methow Valley in 1933, George worked in farming and logging before starting his career with the Forest Service.

He recalls how in the 1940s the Forest Service would gather a crew and then walk all night to go fight a fire. “I remember one time I was taking a crew way up War Creek. We had a fire going between Lake Chelan and the Twisp River. And we hiked about 15 miles to get in there.” Every other guy carried a flashlight,” he explained. “You’d see all these eyes shining along the trail — I’m sure cougar, deer and I don’t know what all. You had to be careful and you had to have somebody lead the way who knew the country.”

It was water, rather than fire, that got some of the wildlife moving up in the country where Homer Wolfe was born in 1916 — a fruit ranch between Wilbur and the Columbia River. He remembers how the water backed up after Grand Coulee Dam was built and the deer were able to swim across the river from the north. “We had deer coming across and establishing themselves in the canyon areas and up on the edge of the wheat fields,” he recalls. “And my brother would shoot a deer every year.”

George and Homer both grew up in times when the success of the family’s farm and garden depended, in large part, on their knowledge of the place. “Your parents would teach you things, and that knowledge was passed on to your siblings,” George explained. One example of such knowledge was how to avoid planting the garden too early, before the ground was warm enough. In the Methow, he learned to wait until “the snow got off of Mount McClure” to plant any seeds.

Homer’s family raised about 50 chickens a year — enough for a roast each Sunday.
He describes the interaction between two native species of birds that enabled more of his family’s chickens to survive. “In that country there was a bird called a kingbird, and they would build a nest up on the edge of the windmill. And they had a particular yearn to chase (Cooper’s) hawks if they ever showed up. And whenever they started their squawking the chickens knew what they were talking about because the mother hen would call all the chicks together and the kingbird would dive down on the hawk until that hawk was crazy.”

What observation about nature have you made that can help others be successful?

Join others across North Central Washington as we create a naturalist’s journal of our region. Post your observations about the weather, including temperature, moisture levels and significant storm events, along with those about specific plants and animals you see near your home or area.

Start a journal and track: date/time, location, observer, weather notes, and your observations. Share your observations with the community by posting them here as comments. Submit entries on your own or team up with a friend or family member. Together our observations will chronicle trends and changes and provide a legacy for future generations to build on.

Post your observations by adding to the comments in the link below.

IRIS